Publications

Peer Reviewed · Others

Peer Reviewed

2018

  • Alessandra Rossi, Patrick Holthaus, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Kheng Lee Koay, and Michael L. Walters. Programming pepper: what can you make a humanoid robot do? (in press). In 3rd Workshop on Behavior Adaptation, Interaction and Learning for Assistive Robotics (BAILAR 2018). Nanjing, China, 2018. [ BibTeX ]
    @inproceedings{Rossi2018b,
        author = "Rossi, Alessandra and Holthaus, Patrick and Dautenhahn, Kerstin and Koay, Kheng Lee and Walters, Michael L.",
        title = "Programming Pepper: What can you make a humanoid robot do? (in press)",
        booktitle = "3rd Workshop on Behavior Adaptation, Interaction and Learning for Assistive Robotics (BAILAR 2018)",
        address = "Nanjing, China",
        year = "2018",
        abstract = "The UK Robotics Week provided an opportunity to engage the UK nation’s schools, colleges and universities in developing skills needed to drive the UK’s technological future economy. Within this contest we decided to present a series of events to introduce school children to the state-of-art of social Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) and some currently adopted social cues. The students were exposed to three different types of HRI: a video HRI, a real live HRI and HRI programming of a robot. In particular, during the programming sessions, students were focused on the implementation of emotions in HRI. Future works will use the results collected during this event to investigate the impact of human perceptions of trust and acceptability of robots in Human-Robot Interactions."
    }
    
    

2017

  • Timo Michalski, Marian Pohling, and Patrick Holthaus. Competitive Agents for Intelligent Home Automation. In International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI 2017), 527–531. Bielefeld, Germany, 2017. ACM. doi:10.1145/3125739.3132616. [ BibTeX ]
    @inproceedings{Michalski2017,
        author = "Michalski, Timo and Pohling, Marian and Holthaus, Patrick",
        title = "{Competitive Agents for Intelligent Home Automation}",
        booktitle = "International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI 2017)",
        address = "Bielefeld, Germany",
        year = "2017",
        pages = "527--531",
        publisher = "ACM",
        doi = "10.1145/3125739.3132616",
        abstract = "Technologies that aim to achieve intelligent automation in smart homes typically involve either trigger-action pairs or machine learning. These, however, are often complex to configure or hard to comprehend for the user. To maximize automation efficiency while keeping the configuration simple and the effects comprehensible, we thus explore an alternative agent-based approach. With the help of a survey, we put together a set of intelligent agents that act autonomously in the environment. Conflicts between behaviors, identified with a secondary study, are thereby resolved with a competitive combination of agents. We finally present the draft of a user interface that allows for individual configuration of all agents."
    }
    
    
  • Sebastian Wrede, Christian Leichsenring, Patrick Holthaus, Thomas Hermann, and Sven Wachsmuth. The Cognitive Service Robotics Apartment - A Versatile Environment for Human-Machine Interaction Research. KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Special Issue on Smart Environments, 31(3):299–304, 2017. doi:10.1007/s13218-017-0492-x. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @article{Wrede2017,
        author = "Wrede, Sebastian and Leichsenring, Christian and Holthaus, Patrick and Hermann, Thomas and Wachsmuth, Sven",
        title = "{The Cognitive Service Robotics Apartment - A Versatile Environment for Human-Machine Interaction Research}",
        journal = "KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Special Issue on Smart Environments",
        year = "2017",
        volume = "31",
        number = "3",
        pages = "299--304",
        doi = "10.1007/s13218-017-0492-x",
        abstract = "The emergence of cognitive interaction technology offering intuitive and personalized support for humans in daily routines is essential for the success of future smart environments. Social robotics and ambient assisted living are well-established, active research fields but in the real world the number of smart environments that support humans efficiently on a daily basis is still rather low. We argue that research on ambient intelligence and human-robot interaction needs to be conducted in a a strongly interdisciplinary process to facilitate seamless integration of assistance technologies into the users' daily lives. With the Cognitive Service Robotics Apartment (CSRA), we are developing a novel kind of laboratory following this interdisciplinary approach. It combines a smart home with ambient intelligence functionalities with a cognitive social robot with advanced manipulation capabilities to explore the all day use of cognitive interaction technology for human assistance. This lab in conjunction with our development approach opens up new lines of inquiry and allows to address new research questions in human machine, -agent and -robot interaction.",
        pdf = "Wrede2017.pdf"
    }
    
    

2016

  • Jasmin Bernotat, Birte Schiffhauer, Friederike Eyssel, Patrick Holthaus, Christian Leichsenring, Viktor Richter, Marian Pohling, Birte Carlmeyer, Kai Frederic Engelmann, Florian Lier, Simon Schulz, Rebecca Bröhl, Elena Seibel, Paul Hellwig, Philipp Cimiano, Franz Kummert, David Schlangen, Petra Wagner, Thomas Hermann, Sven Wachsmuth, Britta Wrede, and Sebastian Wrede. Welcome to the future – How naïve users intuitively address an intelligent robotics apartment. In Arvin Agah, John-John Cabibihan, Ayanna M. Howard, Miguel A. Salichs, and Hongsheng He, editors, International Conference on Social Robotics (ICSR 2016), volume 9979 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 982–992. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Kansas City, USA, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47437-3_96. [ BibTeX ]
    @incollection{Bernotat2016,
        author = "Bernotat, Jasmin and Schiffhauer, Birte and Eyssel, Friederike and Holthaus, Patrick and Leichsenring, Christian and Richter, Viktor and Pohling, Marian and Carlmeyer, Birte and Engelmann, Kai Frederic and Lier, Florian and Schulz, Simon and Bröhl, Rebecca and Seibel, Elena and Hellwig, Paul and Cimiano, Philipp and Kummert, Franz and Schlangen, David and Wagner, Petra and Hermann, Thomas and Wachsmuth, Sven and Wrede, Britta and Wrede, Sebastian",
        editor = "Agah, Arvin and Cabibihan, John-John and Howard, Ayanna M. and Salichs, Miguel A. and He, Hongsheng",
        title = {{Welcome to the future – How na{\"{i}}ve users intuitively address an intelligent robotics apartment}},
        booktitle = "International Conference on Social Robotics (ICSR 2016)",
        address = "Kansas City, USA",
        series = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
        pages = "982--992",
        volume = "9979",
        year = "2016",
        doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-47437-3\_96",
        isbn = "978-3-319-47437-3",
        publisher = "Springer Berlin / Heidelberg",
        abstract = {The purpose of this Wizard-of-Oz study was to explore the intuitive verbal and non-verbal goal-directed behavior of na{\"{i}}ve participants in an intelligent robotics apartment. Participants had to complete seven mundane tasks, for instance, they were asked to turn on the light. Participants were explicitly instructed to consider nonstandard ways of completing the respective tasks. A multi-method approach revealed that most participants favored speech and interfaces like switches and screens to communicate with the intelligent robotics apartment. However, they required instructions to use the interfaces in order to perceive them as competent targets for human-machine interaction. Hence, first important steps were taken to investigate how to design an intelligent robotics apartment in a user-centered and user-friendly manner.}
    }
    
    
  • Kai-Frederic Engelmann, Patrick Holthaus, Sebastian Wrede, and Britta Wrede. An Interaction-Centric Dataset for Learning Automation Rules in Smart Homes. In International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2016). Portorož, Slovenia, 2016. European Language Resources Association (ELRA). URL: http://www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2016/summaries/1014.html. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @inproceedings{Engelmann2016,
        author = "Engelmann, Kai-Frederic and Holthaus, Patrick and Wrede, Sebastian and Wrede, Britta",
        title = "{An Interaction-Centric Dataset for Learning Automation Rules in Smart Homes}",
        booktitle = "International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2016)",
        address = "Portorož, Slovenia",
        year = "2016",
        publisher = "European Language Resources Association (ELRA)",
        isbn = "978-2-9517408-9-1",
        url = "http://www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2016/summaries/1014.html",
        abstract = "The term smart home refers to a living environment that by its connected sensors and actuators is capable of providing intelligent and contextualised support to its user. This may result in automated behaviors that blends into the user’s daily life. However, currently most smart homes do not provide such intelligent support. A first step towards such intelligent capabilities lies in learning automation rules by observing the user’s behavior. We present a new type of corpus for learning such rules from user behavior as observed from the events in a smart homes sensor and actuator network. The data contains information about intended tasks by the users and synchronized events from this network. It is derived from interactions of 59 users with the smart home in order to solve five tasks. The corpus contains recordings of more than 40 different types of data streams and has been segmented and pre-processed to increase signal quality. Overall, the data shows a high noise level on specific data types that can be filtered out by a simple smoothing approach. The resulting data provides insights into event patterns resulting from task specific user behavior and thus constitutes a basis for machine learning approaches to learn automation rules.",
        pdf = "http://www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2016/pdf/1014\_Paper.pdf"
    }
    
    
  • Patrick Holthaus, Christian Leichsenring, Jasmin Bernotat, Viktor Richter, Marian Pohling, Birte Carlmeyer, Norman Köster, Sebastian Meyer zu Borgsen, René Zorn, Birte Schiffhauer, Kai Frederic Engelmann, Florian Lier, Simon Schulz, Philipp Cimiano, Friederike Eyssel, Thomas Herrmann, Franz Kummert, David Schlangen, Sven Wachsmuth, Petra Wagner, Britta Wrede, and Sebastian Wrede. How to Address Smart Homes with a Social Robot? A Multi-modal Corpus of User Interactions with an Intelligent Environment. In International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2016). Portorož, Slovenia, 2016. European Language Resources Association (ELRA). URL: http://www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2016/summaries/1046.html. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @inproceedings{Holthaus2016a,
        author = "Holthaus, Patrick and Leichsenring, Christian and Bernotat, Jasmin and Richter, Viktor and Pohling, Marian and Carlmeyer, Birte and Köster, Norman and zu Borgsen, Sebastian Meyer and Zorn, René and Schiffhauer, Birte and Engelmann, Kai Frederic and Lier, Florian and Schulz, Simon and Cimiano, Philipp and Eyssel, Friederike and Herrmann, Thomas and Kummert, Franz and Schlangen, David and Wachsmuth, Sven and Wagner, Petra and Wrede, Britta and Wrede, Sebastian",
        title = "{How to Address Smart Homes with a Social Robot? A Multi-modal Corpus of User Interactions with an Intelligent Environment}",
        booktitle = "International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2016)",
        address = "Portorož, Slovenia",
        year = "2016",
        publisher = "European Language Resources Association (ELRA)",
        isbn = "978-2-9517408-9-1",
        url = "http://www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2016/summaries/1046.html",
        abstract = "In order to explore intuitive verbal and non-verbal interfaces in smart environments we recorded user interactions with an intelligent apartment. Besides offering various interactive capabilities itself, the apartment is also inhabited by a social robot that is available as a humanoid interface. This paper presents a multi-modal corpus that contains goal-directed actions of naive users in attempts to solve a number of predefined tasks. Alongside audio and video recordings, our data-set consists of large amount of temporally aligned sensory data and system behavior provided by the environment and its interactive components. Non-verbal system responses such as changes in light or display contents, as well as robot and apartment utterances and gestures serve as a rich basis for later in-depth analysis. Manual annotations provide further information about meta data like the current course of study and user behavior including the incorporated modality, all literal utterances, language features, emotional expressions, foci of attention, and addressees.",
        pdf = "http://www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2016/pdf/1046\_Paper.pdf"
    }
    
    

2014

  • Patrick Holthaus. Approaching Human-Like Spatial Awareness in Social Robotics - An Investigation of Spatial Interaction Strategies with a Receptionist Robot. PhD thesis, Bielefeld University, 2014. URL: https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/record/2733038. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @phdthesis{Holthaus2014b,
        author = "Holthaus, Patrick",
        school = "Bielefeld University",
        title = "{Approaching Human-Like Spatial Awareness in Social Robotics - An Investigation of Spatial Interaction Strategies with a Receptionist Robot}",
        type = "PhD Thesis",
        year = "2014",
        url = "https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/record/2733038",
        abstract = "This doctoral thesis investigates the influence of social signals in the spatial domain that aim to raise a robot’s awareness towards its human interlocutor. A concept of spatial awareness thereby extends the robot’s possibilities for expressing its knowledge about the situation as well as its own capabilities. As a result, especially untrained users can build up more appropriate expectations about the current situation which supposedly leads to a minimization of misunderstandings and thereby an enhancement of user experience. On the background of research that investigates communication among humans, relations are drawn in order to utilize gained insights for developing a robot that is capable of acting socially intelligent with regard to human-like treatment of spatial configurations and signals. In a study-driven approach, an integrated concept of spatial awareness is therefore proposed. An important aspect of that concept, which is founded in its spatial extent, lies in its aspiration to cover a holistic encounter between human and robot with the goal to improve user experience from the first sight until the end of reciprocal awareness. It describes how spatial configurations and signals can be perceived and interpreted in a social robot. Furthermore, it also presents signals and behavioral properties for such a robot that target at influencing said configurations and enhancing robot verbosity. In order to approve the concept’s validity in realistic settings, an interactive scenario is presented in the form of a receptionist robot to which it is applied. In the context of this setup, a comprehensive user study is conducted that verifies the implementation of spatial awareness to be beneficial for an interaction with humans that are naive to the subject. Furthermore, the importance of addressing an entire encounter in human-robot interaction is confirmed as well as a strong interdependency of a robot’s social signals among each other.",
        pdf = "https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/download/2733038/2733039/dissertation-patrick-holthaus.pdf"
    }
    
    
  • Patrick Holthaus and Sven Wachsmuth. The Receptionist Robot. In International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2014), 329–329. Bielefeld, Germany, 2014. ACM/IEEE. doi:10.1145/2559636.2559784. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @inproceedings{Holthaus2014a,
        author = "Holthaus, Patrick and Wachsmuth, Sven",
        title = "{The Receptionist Robot}",
        booktitle = "International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2014)",
        address = "Bielefeld, Germany",
        year = "2014",
        pages = "329--329",
        publisher = "ACM/IEEE",
        doi = "10.1145/2559636.2559784",
        abstract = "In this demonstration, a humanoid robot interacts with an interlocutor through speech and gestures in order to give directions on a map. The interaction is specifically designed to provide an enhanced user experience by being aware of non-verbal social signals. Therefore, we take spatial communicative cues into account and to react to them accordingly.",
        pdf = "Holthaus2014a.pdf"
    }
    
    

2013

  • Patrick Holthaus and Sven Wachsmuth. Direct On-Line Imitation of Human Faces with Hierarchical ART Networks. In International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2013), 370–371. Gyeongju, South Korea, 2013. IEEE. doi:10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628502. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @inproceedings{Holthaus2013,
        author = "Holthaus, Patrick and Wachsmuth, Sven",
        title = "{Direct On-Line Imitation of Human Faces with Hierarchical ART Networks}",
        booktitle = "International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2013)",
        address = "Gyeongju, South Korea",
        pages = "370--371",
        year = "2013",
        publisher = "IEEE",
        doi = "10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628502",
        abstract = "This work-in-progress paper presents an on-line system for robotic heads capable of mimicking humans. The marker-less method solely depends on the interactant’s face as an input and does not use a set of basic emotions and is thus capable of displaying a large variety of facial expressions. A preliminary evaluation assigns solid performance with potential for improvement.",
        pdf = "Holthaus2013.pdf"
    }
    
    

2012

  • Patrick Holthaus and Sven Wachsmuth. Active Peripersonal Space for More Intuitive HRI. In International Conference on Humanoid Robots (HUMANOIDS 2012), 508–513. Osaka, Japan, 2012. IEEE-RAS. doi:10.1109/HUMANOIDS.2012.6651567. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @inproceedings{Holthaus2012,
        author = "Holthaus, Patrick and Wachsmuth, Sven",
        title = "{Active Peripersonal Space for More Intuitive HRI}",
        booktitle = "International Conference on Humanoid Robots (HUMANOIDS 2012)",
        address = "Osaka, Japan",
        pages = "508--513",
        year = "2012",
        publisher = "IEEE-RAS",
        doi = "10.1109/HUMANOIDS.2012.6651567",
        abstract = "In face-to-face interaction, humans coordinate actions in their surroundings with the help of a well structured spatial representation. For example on a dinner table, everybody exactly knows which objects belong to her and where she is allowed to grasp. To have robots, e.g. receptionists, act accordingly, we conducted an on-line survey about the expectations humans have while interacting with such a robot. Results indicate that humans attribute the robot handedness and an awareness of distance and territoriality in its own peripersonal space. In order to align a robot's behavior to these expectations, we have have developed a first spatial representation of the robots peripersonal space.",
        pdf = "Holthaus2012.pdf"
    }
    
    

2011

  • Frank Hegel, Sebastian Gieselmann, Annika Peters, Patrick Holthaus, and Britta Wrede. Towards a Typology of Meaningful Signals and Cues in Social Robotics. In International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2011), 72–78. Atlanta, Georgia, 2011. IEEE. doi:10.1109/ROMAN.2011.6005246. [ BibTeX ]
    @inproceedings{Hegel2011,
        author = "Hegel, Frank and Gieselmann, Sebastian and Peters, Annika and Holthaus, Patrick and Wrede, Britta",
        title = "{Towards a Typology of Meaningful Signals and Cues in Social Robotics}",
        booktitle = "International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2011)",
        address = "Atlanta, Georgia",
        year = "2011",
        pages = "72--78",
        publisher = "IEEE",
        doi = "10.1109/ROMAN.2011.6005246",
        abstract = "In this paper, we present a first step towards a typology of relevant signals and cues in human-robot interaction (HRI). In human as well as in animal communication systems, signals and cues play an important role for senders and receivers of such signs. In our typology, we systematically distinguish between a robot's signals and cues which are either designed to be human-like or artificial to create meaningful information. Subsequently, developers and designers should be aware of which signs affect a user's judgements on social robots. For this reason, we first review several signals and cues that have already been successfully used in HRI with regard to our typology. Second, we discuss crucial human-like and artificial cues which have so far not been considered in the design of social robots - although they are highly likely to affect a user's judgement of social robots."
    }
    
    
  • Patrick Holthaus, Karola Pitsch, and Sven Wachsmuth. How Can I Help? - Spatial Attention Strategies for a Receptionist Robot. International Journal of Social Robotics, 3(4):383–393, 2011. doi:10.1007/s12369-011-0108-9. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @article{Holthaus2011,
        author = "Holthaus, Patrick and Pitsch, Karola and Wachsmuth, Sven",
        title = "{How Can I Help? - Spatial Attention Strategies for a Receptionist Robot}",
        journal = "International Journal of Social Robotics",
        year = "2011",
        volume = "3",
        number = "4",
        pages = "383--393",
        doi = "10.1007/s12369-011-0108-9",
        issn = "1875-4791",
        abstract = "Social interaction between humans takes place in the spatial environment on a daily basis. We occupy space for ourselves and respect the dynamics of spaces that are occupied by others. In human-robot interaction, spatial models are commonly used for structuring relatively far-away interactions or passing-by scenarios. This work instead, focuses on the transition between distant and close communication for an interaction opening. We applied a spatial model to a humanoid robot and implemented an attention system that is connected to it. The resulting behaviors have been verified in an online video study. The questionnaire revealed that these behaviors are applicable and result in a robot that has been perceived as more interested in the human and shows its attention and intentions earlier and to a higher degree than other strategies.",
        pdf = "Holthaus2011.pdf"
    }
    
    

2010

  • Patrick Holthaus, Ingo Lütkebohle, Marc Hanheide, and Sven Wachsmuth. Can I Help You? A Spatial Attention System for a Receptionist Robot. In Shuzhi Ge, Haizhou Li, John-John Cabibihan, and Yeow Tan, editors, International Conference on Social Robotics (ICSR 2010), volume 6414 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 325–334. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Singapore, 2010. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-17248-9_34. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @incollection{Holthaus2010,
        author = "Holthaus, Patrick and Lütkebohle, Ingo and Hanheide, Marc and Wachsmuth, Sven",
        editor = "Ge, Shuzhi and Li, Haizhou and Cabibihan, John-John and Tan, Yeow",
        title = "{Can I Help You? A Spatial Attention System for a Receptionist Robot}",
        booktitle = "International Conference on Social Robotics (ICSR 2010)",
        address = "Singapore",
        series = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
        pages = "325--334",
        volume = "6414",
        year = "2010",
        doi = "10.1007/978-3-642-17248-9\_34",
        isbn = "978-3-642-17247-2",
        publisher = "Springer Berlin / Heidelberg",
        abstract = "Social interaction between humans takes place in the spatial dimension on a daily basis. We occupy space for ourselves and respect the dynamics of spaces that are occupied by others. In human-robot interaction, the focus has been on other topics so far. Therefore, this work applies a spatial model to a humanoid robot and implements an attention system that is connected to it. The resulting behaviors have been verified in an on-line video study. The questionnaire revealed that these behaviors are applicable and result in a robot that has been perceived as more interested in the human and shows its attention and intentions to a higher degree.",
        pdf = "Holthaus2010.pdf"
    }
    
    

Others

  • Patrick Holthaus. Community News: Conference Report LREC 2016. KI - Künstliche Intelligenz, 30(3):349–354, 2016. doi:10.1007/s13218-016-0447-7. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @article{Holthaus2016c,
        author = "Holthaus, Patrick",
        title = "{Community News: Conference Report LREC 2016}",
        journal = "KI - Künstliche Intelligenz",
        year = "2016",
        volume = "30",
        number = "3",
        pages = "349--354",
        issn = "1610-1987",
        doi = "10.1007/s13218-016-0447-7",
        pdf = "Holthaus2016c.pdf"
    }
    
    
  • Patrick Holthaus, Thomas Hermann, Sebastian Wrede, Sven Wachsmuth, and Britta Wrede. 1st International Workshop on Embodied Interaction with Smart Environments (Workshop Summary). In International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI 2016). Tokyo, Japan, 2016. ACM. doi:10.1145/2993148.3007628. [ BibTeX ] [ PDF ]
    @inproceedings{Holthaus2016b,
        author = "Holthaus, Patrick and Hermann, Thomas and Wrede, Sebastian and Wachsmuth, Sven and Wrede, Britta",
        title = "{1st International Workshop on Embodied Interaction with Smart Environments (Workshop Summary)}",
        booktitle = "International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI 2016)",
        address = "Tokyo, Japan",
        year = "2016",
        publisher = "ACM",
        doi = "10.1145/2993148.3007628",
        abstract = "The first workshop on embodied interaction with smart environments aims to bring together the very active community of multi-modal interaction research and the rapidly evolving field of smart home technologies. Besides addressing the software architecture of such very complex systems, it puts an emphasis on questions regarding an intuitive interaction with the environment. Thereby, especially the role of agency leads to interesting challenges in the light of user interactions. We therefore encourage a lively discussion on the design and concepts of social robots and virtual avatars as well as innovative ambient devices and their implementation into smart environments.",
        pdf = "Holthaus2016b.pdf"
    }